Lettuce was originally farmed by the ancient Egyptians, who transformed it from a plant whose seeds were used to create oil into an important food crop raised for its succulent leaves and oil-rich seeds. Lettuce, (Lactuca sativa), annual leaf vegetable of the aster family (Asteraceae). These upright lettuces were developed by the Egyptians and passed to the Greeks, who in turn shared them with the Romans. Lettuce field with irrigation sprinklers.  In contrast, the ancient Greeks connected the plant with male impotency, and served it during funerals (probably due to its role in the myth of Adonis' death), and British women in the 19th century believed it would cause infertility and sterility. A step by step guide to growing Lettuce plants in pots. Heading varieties of lettuces are commonly started in flats, then transplanted to individual spots, usually 20 to 36 cm (7.9 to 14.2 in) apart, in the garden after developing several leaves.  Scientific research into the genetic modification of lettuce is ongoing, with over 85 field trials taking place between 1992 and 2005 in the European Union and United States to test modifications allowing greater herbicide tolerance, greater resistance to insects and fungi and slower bolting patterns. However, despite high levels of bacteria being found on ready-to-eat lettuce products, a 2008 study found no incidences of food-borne illness related to listeriosis, possibly due to the product's short shelf life, indigenous microflora competing with the Listeria bacteria or inhibition of bacteria to cause listeriosis. Plants generally have a height and spread of 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in).  Salmonella bacteria, including the uncommon Salmonella braenderup type, have also caused outbreaks traced to contaminated lettuce. Butterhead. Giving romaine lettuce plenty of room to grow results in larger heads. Lettuce, Lactuca sativa, is a leafy herbaceous annual or biennial plant in the family Asteraceae grown for its leaves which are used as a salad green. , Due to its short lifespan after harvest, lettuce was originally sold relatively close to where it was grown.  A 2007 study determined that the vacuum cooling method, especially prevalent in the California lettuce industry, increased the uptake and survival rates of E. coli O157:H7. Lettuce will also cross with Lactuca serriola (wild lettuce), with the resulting seeds often producing a plant with tough, bitter leaves. Arugula is one of my favorite types of lettuce. However, for the fruit of the lettuce plant to be classified a citrus fruit, it must have citric acid. Avoid planting romaine lettuce in midday sun. Lettuce is ideal for succession planting.Sow seeds every two weeks for production throughout the season, starting with early lettuce varieties, using heat-tolerant varieties as your main crop, and then switching to fall crops late in the summer. Post-Roman Europe continued the tradition of poaching lettuce, mainly with large romaine types, as well as the method of pouring a hot oil and vinegar mixture over the leaves. Test your knowledge with this quiz. As three astronauts tried the red romaine lettuce back in 2015, they tapped their leaves together and exclaimed "Cheers!" Oilseed lettuce is a primitive, wild-looking plant that forms no head or rosette of leaves. Lettuce is one of the main vegetables that are easy to grow in pots. , The Romans referred to lettuce as lactuca (lac meaning dairy in Latin), an allusion to the white substance, now called latex, exuded by cut stems. It can be plagued by numerous nutrient deficiencies, as well as insect and mammal pests, and fungal and bacterial diseases. For example, the larvae of the ghost moth is a common pest of lettuce plants. This article was most recently revised and updated by, Turner Classic Movies - Biography of Robert Mitchum, lettuce - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), lettuce - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up).  This propensity for crossing, however, has led to breeding programs using closely related species in Lactuca, such as L. serriola, L. saligna, and L. virosa, to broaden the available gene pool. The vegetable has also been linked to outbreaks of parasitic infestations, including Giardia lamblia.. Lettuce seeds are often quite small and only require a planting depth of ¼ to ½ inch deep. As described around 50 AD, lettuce leaves were often cooked and served by the Romans with an oil-and-vinegar dressing; however, smaller leaves were sometimes eaten raw. , Other bacteria found on lettuce include Aeromonas species, which have not been linked to any outbreaks; Campylobacter species, which cause campylobacteriosis; and Yersinia intermedia and Yersinia kristensenii (species of Yersinia), which have been found mainly in lettuce. How far apart to plant lettuce depends on the type of lettuce you’re planting. Light requirements: Full sun to part shade.  Plants in hot areas that are provided partial shade during the hottest part of the day will bolt more slowly. Although this trait can be a problem to home gardeners who attempt to save seeds, biologists have used it to broaden the gene pool of cultivated lettuce varieties. Iceberg and romaine are two common types of head lettuce. L. sativa crosses easily within the species and with some other species within the genus Lactuca. By the end of the century, other types began to regain popularity and eventually made up over 30 percent of production. However, this has led to the development of herbicide-resistant weeds and prompted environmental and health concerns.. The following articles can help with that.  This narcotic effect is a property of two sesquiterpene lactones which are found in the white liquid (latex) in the stems of lettuce, called lactucarium or "lettuce opium".  Although China is the top world producer of lettuce, the majority of the crop is consumed domestically. It is related to common lettuce ( L. sativa ), and is often called wild lettuce , bitter lettuce , laitue vireuse , opium lettuce , poisonous lettuce , tall lettuce , great lettuce  or rakutu-karyumu-so . Circa 50 AD, Roman agriculturalist Columella described several lettuce varieties – some of which may have been ancestors of today's lettuces. Buttercrunch (aka Boston bibb or semi-head lettuce) type lettuce is particularly well-suited to indoor production as it produces compact high-quality plants that can be harvested one leaf at a time or as an entire mature head. …a leaf, such as cabbage, lettuce, parsley, spinach, and chive; an immature flower, such as cauliflower, broccoli, and artichoke; a seed, such as pea and lima bean; the immature fruit, such as eggplant,…, and sweet corn (maize); cabbage, lettuce, and spinach are suited to vacuum cooling; air cooling is preferred for bean, cucumber, eggplant, pepper, and tomato. It also isn't pisonia, which is also sometimes called tree lettuce.  Once plants move past the edible stage, they develop flower stalks up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) high with small yellow blossoms. Hildegard of Bingen mentioned it in her writings on medicinal herbs between 1098 and 1179, and many early herbals also describe its uses. Optimal pH ranges from 6.0-6.7. Spain is the world's largest exporter of lettuce, with the US ranking second. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. , Food-borne pathogens that can survive on lettuce include Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, which multiplies in storage. , In the early 21st century, bagged salad products increased in the lettuce market, especially in the US where innovative packaging and shipping methods prolonged freshness. It ships well, but is low in flavor and nutritional content, being composed of even more water than other lettuce types. Each fruit contains one seed, which can be white, yellow, gray or brown depending on the variety of lettuce. (Read the stick tag that comes with the plant for specific spacing recommendations.) Omissions? , Species of annual plant of the daisy family, most often grown as a leaf vegetable, "Lettuce (with chicory) production in 2017; Countries/Regions/Production Quantity from pick lists", "The Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project", "New Directions in Salad Crops: New Forms, New Tools, and Old Philosophy", "Developing Multi-Species Insect Resistance in Romaine Lettuce", "As Bagged Salad Kits Boom, Americans Eat More Greens", "Chapter IV. , A hardy annual, some varieties of lettuce can be overwintered even in relatively cold climates under a layer of straw, and older, heirloom varieties are often grown in cold frames. Generally grown as a hardy annual, lettuce is easily cultivated, although it requires relatively low temperatures to prevent it from flowering quickly. Lettuce grows rapidly, even in situations of relatively low light and temperatures. This was done for several reasons, the most prominent being to boost sales by promoting a "new" variety or to prevent customers from knowing that the variety had been developed by a competing seed company.  Weeds can also be an issue, as cultivated lettuce is generally not competitive with them, especially when directly seeded into the ground. Temperatures above 27 °C (81 °F) will generally result in poor or non-existent germination of lettuce seeds.  There are also a few varieties with yellow, gold or blue-teal leaves. integrata and L. scariola var. integrifolia. Firm-headed types: Plant 16 inches apart. Far from the shrink-wrapped iceberg lettuce we all know so wellperfectly round and crunchy, almost all water, and able to last a long time after harvestthe multitude of lettuce varieties available at the grocery store and farmers markets offer a wide range of textures, colors, and flavors. If you start the seeds inside, the plants can benefit from an earlier planting date, and therefore a longer growing season. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Where is the line between fruit and vegetable really drawn? Weeds also act as homes for insects and disease and can make harvesting more difficult. Butterhead – Also known as Boston or Bibb lettuce. The fleshy or 'stem-y' parts of the leaves are quite yummy -- but, then, I don't dislike the flavour of the leaves anyway. , Lettuce's native range spreads from the Mediterranean to Siberia, although it has been transported to almost all areas of the world. Most lettuce varieties are eaten fresh and are commonly served as the base of green salads. Starting in the 1990s, such programs began to include more distantly related species such as L. Carrots and radishes are the roots of a plant. It has a sweet flavor and is very rich so … It is very easy to grow and is is considerably tastier than store-bought. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Summercrisp – Also called Batavian or French crisp, this lettuce is midway between the crisphead and leaf types. For their part, astronauts thought the lettuce was out-of-this-world. Lettuce was also used in a larger variety of dishes than in Western countries, contributing to a range of dishes including bean curd and meat dishes, soups and stir-frys plain or with other vegetables. Three types – leaf, head and cos or romaine – are the most common. These lettuces tend to be larger, bolt-resistant and well-flavored. OK – I confess: lettuce mixes are addicting and I love them.  Folk medicine has also claimed it as a treatment for pain, rheumatism, tension and nervousness, coughs and insanity; scientific evidence of these benefits in humans has not been found.  At room temperature, lettuce seeds remain viable for only a few months. If you can begin growing Lettuce indoors you are also able to get a head start on the growing season. Growing lettuce in rows gives your garden a traditional look. Alternate names/varieties: …  Lettuce has been linked to numerous outbreaks of the bacteria E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella; the plants were most likely contaminated through contact with animal feces.  Like other members of the tribe Cichorieae, lettuce inflorescences (also known as flower heads or capitula) are composed of multiple florets, each with a modified calyx called a pappus (which becomes the feathery "parachute" of the fruit), a corolla of five petals fused into a ligule or strap, and the reproductive parts. In 1586, Joachim Camerarius provided descriptions of the three basic modern lettuces – head lettuce, loose-leaf lettuce, and romaine (or cos) lettuce. Romaine lettuce is often used for Caesar salads. Lettuce varieties will cross with each other, making spacing of 1.5 to 6 m (60 to 240 in) between varieties necessary to prevent contamination when saving seeds.  Lettuces have a wide range of shapes and textures, from the dense heads of the iceberg type to the notched, scalloped, frilly or ruffly leaves of leaf varieties. Though it looks like basic leaf lettuce, it’s anything but... French Crisp (Batavian). Yes, lettuce does have fruits but the part of the lettuce that we consume is the leaves. The yellow flower heads produce achene fruits with feathery pappus structures for wind dispersal.  This word has become the genus name, while sativa (meaning "sown" or "cultivated") was added to create the species name.  The leaves are colorful, mainly in the green and red color spectrums, with some variegated varieties. Leaf – Also known as looseleaf, cutting or bunching lettuce. Lettuce Plants.  Between the late 16th century and the early 18th century, many varieties were developed in Europe, particularly Holland. Work in these areas continues through the present day. Provide adequate spacing. Oilseed – This type is grown for its seeds, which are pressed to extract an oil mainly used for cooking. Stem lettuce, widely consumed in China, is eaten either raw or cooked, the latter primarily in soups and stir-frys.  Although most lettuce grown today is used as a vegetable, a minor amount is used in the production of tobacco-free cigarettes; however, domestic lettuce's wild relatives produce a leaf that visually more closely resembles tobacco.  Lettuces meant for the cutting of individual leaves are generally planted straight into the garden in thick rows. Asparagus and celery are the stem of a plant. A member of the Asteraceae, or aster, plant family, lettuce (Lactuca sativa) develops from a rosette that forms either a compact or a loose cluster of leaves joined at the base just above the soil. Growing Lettuce in pots is a great solution if you only have a small garden, balcony, and patio. Cos and loose-headed types: Plant 8 inches apart. The Romans likewise claimed that it increased sexual potency. Lettuce plants have a short root system, so you don't need to dig a deep trench. In thirty days, I have an instant salad of delicious baby greens. For gardeners who enjoy making sandwiches and salads of all types, lettuce is an indispensable part of the garden. If you’re a high-end chef and you’re ready to take your salads to the … In 2017, world production of lettuce (report combined with chicory) was 27 million tonnes, with China alone producing 15.2 million tonnes or 56% of the world total (see table). Lettuces meant for the cutting of individual leaves are generally planted straight into the garden in thick rows. Europe and North America originally dominated the market for lettuce, but by the late 20th century the consumption of lettuce had spread throughout the world.  Lettuce was considered a sacred plant of the reproduction god Min, and it was carried during his festivals and placed near his images. Lettuce plants can have taproots or fibrous root systems. The different parts of many plants are edible. The following varieties are my favorites. The Allstar Gourmet Lettuce Mix from Johnny’s Seeds is one of my favorites. Lettuce is a leafy annual vegetable that thrives in cool weather. Lactuca virosa is a plant in the Lactuca (lettuce) genus, often ingested for its mild analgesic and sedative effects. Because lettuce that flowers (through the process known as "bolting") becomes bitter and unsaleable, plants grown for consumption are rarely allowed to grow to maturity.  Crowding lettuce tends to attract pests and diseases. Lettuce, a member of the daisy family Asteraceae, was originally domesticated in Egypt several millennia ago.  Most lettuce is used in salads, either alone or with other greens, vegetables, meats and cheeses. , Lettuce was first cultivated in ancient Egypt for the production of oil from its seeds. By the late 1900s, Asia, South America, Australia and Africa became more substantial markets. The seeds produced on this stem are about 50 percent larger than those formed on cultivated … Names also often changed significantly from country to country. In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal significance over centuries of human consumption.  Lettuce plants have a root system that includes a main taproot and smaller secondary roots. After the 1940s, with the development of iceberg lettuce, 95 percent of the lettuce grown and consumed in the US was crisphead lettuce. Instead of a generic looking and tasting salad, you can make something interesting to eat and look at. Lettuce spaced farther apart receives more sunlight… It bolts early in its growth cycle, forming a thin stem with elongated, narrow leaves.  Lettuce is also used as a primary ingredient in the preparation of lettuce soup. The leaves of domesticated varieties come in a wide range of colours, from shades of green to deep red and purple; variegated varieties have also been developed.  After harvest, lettuce lasts the longest when kept at 0 °C (32 °F) and 96 percent humidity. Allstar Gourmet Mix. Natural remedies, such as medicinal plants, have been used since ancient times to treat a variety of symptoms, including pain. Insert the seeds .25 to 1 inch (.6 to… Lettuce quickly degrades when stored with fruit such as apples, pears and bananas that release the ripening agent ethylene gas. How To Cultivate Lettuce Plants. It belongs to the valerian family (Valerianoideae) and is not related to any other vegetable species. Certain varieties contain more than others, and some selective breeding and genetic modification studies have focused on using this trait to identify and produce commercial varieties with increased pest resistance. Consider planting rows of chives or garlic between your lettuce to control aphids. Wild lettuce is a plant known for its pain-relieving properties. It has few leaves, bolts quickly and produces seeds around 50 percent larger than other types of lettuce. Celtuce, a lettuce variety grown primarily in Asia for its stems, crosses easily with lettuces grown for their leaves. Lactuca sativa is a member of the Lactuca (lettuce) genus and the Asteraceae (sunflower or aster) family. Different locations tended to prefer different types of lettuce, with butterhead prevailing in northern Europe and Great Britain, romaine in the Mediterranean and stem lettuce in China and Egypt.  Mammals, including rabbits and groundhogs, also eat the plants. However, genetically modified lettuce is not currently[when?]  Viruses, including hepatitis A, calicivirus and a Norwalk-like strain, have been found in lettuce. In the early spring, I will plant several short rows in my greenhouse. Incidence, Growth, and Survival of Pathogens in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce", "Bashiqa Journal: A Sect Shuns Lettuce and Gives the Devil His Due", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lettuce&oldid=991145591, Articles with dead external links from October 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles containing Chinese-language text, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from November 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. For example, ancient Egyptians thought lettuce to be a symbol of sexual prowess and a promoter of love and childbearing in women. After the produce is precooled, it is desirable to maintain low temperature by shipping in refrigerator cars or trucks, by storing in cold-storage rooms, and by…. Parris Island Romaine Lettuce.  With the exception of the iceberg variety, lettuce is also a good source (10–19% DV) of folate and iron (table). There are several types or cultivars of lettuce. By 50 AD, many types were described, and lettuce appeared often in medieval writings, including several herbals. Lettuces grow best in the cool weather of spring and fall; in NC's hot summers, the plants appreciate having some shade so long as they can get 3-4 hrs of sun a day. Photo by Chelsea Kyle, Food Styling by Olivia Mack Anderson. Protect plants from strong spring or afternoon sun in warmest regions. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled. Cover the seeds with ¼ to ½ inch of soil. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).  The current word lettuce, originally from Middle English, came from the Old French letues or laitues, which derived from the Roman name. Lettuce is generally a rich source of vitamins K and A, though the nutritional quality varies, depending on the variety. Space romaine plants at least 12 inches (30 cm.)  Hydroponic growing methods can reduce this water consumption by nearly two orders of magnitude. Updates? Contaminated lettuce is often a source of bacterial, viral, and parasitic outbreaks in humans, including E. coli and Salmonella. Spinach and lettuce are the leaves of a plant. Of the many vegetables suitable for the home garden, leaf lettuce is one of the best. … Here are two cultivation tips to keep in mind: Succession Planting. Leaf lettuce: Plant 4 inches apart. Outbreaks Associated with Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce. Choose a head lettuce variety for indoor planting.  In spite of its high water content, traditionally grown lettuce has a low water footprint, with 237 liters of water required for each kilogram of lettuce produced. Lettuce is a rich source of vitamin K and vitamin A, and a moderate source of folate and iron. Lettuce is in the same family as asters and sunflowers, Compositae.  L. scariola is itself a synonym for L. serriola, the common wild or prickly lettuce. Romaine is a very popular lettuce and a healthy addition to your survival garden. Depending on the variety, lettuce is an excellent source (20% of the Daily Value, DV, or higher) of vitamin K (97% DV) and vitamin A (21% DV) (table), with higher concentrations of the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, found in darker green lettuces, such as romaine. Books published in the mid-18th and early 19th centuries describe several varieties found in gardens today. I'd like to find out the Latin nomenclature for this plant but haven't had much success so far. tatarica. The high water content of lettuce (94.9 percent) creates problems when attempting to preserve the plant – it cannot be successfully frozen, canned or dried and must be eaten fresh. The crisphead varieties, well adapted for long-distance shipment, are popular in the United States. Head lettuces take longer to mature. All plants have the same basic parts; roots, stem, leaves, flowers, seeds, and fruit. Types of Lettuce Arugula. That just leaves us with romaine. Lettuce is also eaten as part of the Jewish Passover Seder, where it is considered the optimal choice for use as the bitter herb, which is eaten together with the matzah. The pappus remains at the top of each fruit as a dispersal structure. , Soil nutrient deficiencies can cause a variety of plant problems that range from malformed plants to a lack of head growth. Water thoroughly at time of transplanting. Consider alternating rows of green and red lettuce for a whimsical touch.  Today, the majority of lettuce is grown for its leaves, although one type is grown for its stem and one for its seeds, which are made into an oil.  Lettuce is closely related to several Lactuca species from southwest Asia; the closest relationship is to L. serriola, an aggressive weed common in temperate and subtropical zones in much of the world.  There are seven main cultivar groups of lettuce, each including many varieties: The butterhead and crisphead types are sometimes known together as "cabbage" lettuce, because their heads are shorter, flatter, and more cabbage-like than romaine lettuces. Heading varieties of lettuces are commonly started in flats, then transplantedto individual spots, usually 20 to 36 cm (7.9 to 14.2 in) apart, in the garden after developing several leaves. apart. " Its use in religious ceremonies resulted in the creation of many images in tombs and wall paintings. In that country, "salads" were created from cooked vegetables and served hot or cold.  During the 1950s, lettuce production was revolutionized with the development of vacuum cooling, which allowed field cooling and packing of lettuce, replacing the previously used method of ice-cooling in packing houses outside the fields. , Depending on the variety and time of year, lettuce generally lives 65–130 days from planting to harvesting. By the late 20th century, the preferred types began to change, with crisphead, especially iceberg, lettuce becoming the dominant type in northern Europe and Great Britain and more popular in western Europe. However, when newly harvested lettuce seed is stored cryogenically, this life increases to a half-life of 500 years for vaporized nitrogen and 3,400 years for liquid nitrogen; this advantage is lost if seeds are not frozen promptly after harvesting.. , Lettuce also suffers from several viral diseases, including big vein, which causes yellow, distorted leaves, and mosaic virus, which is spread by aphids and causes stunted plant growth and deformed leaves. They act as “barrier plants” for the lettuce. Longer taproots and more extensive secondary systems are found in varieties from Asia. , The domestication of lettuce over the centuries has resulted in several changes through selective breeding: delayed bolting, larger seeds, larger leaves and heads, better taste and texture, a lower latex content, and different leaf shapes and colors. From the time bolting begins, it takes six to eight weeks for seeds to mature. Lettuce has mild narcotic properties; it was called "sleepwort" by the Anglo-Saxons because of this attribute, although the cultivated L. sativa has lower levels of the narcotic than its wild cousins. Heat generally prompts lettuce to bolt, with most varieties growing poorly above 24 °C (75 °F); cool temperatures prompt better performance, with 16 to 18 °C (61 to 64 °F) being preferred and as low as 7 °C (45 °F) being tolerated. Lettuce spaced farther apart receives more sunlight, which improves color and nutrient quantities in the leaves.  Lettuce contains several defensive compounds, including sesquiterpene lactones, and other natural phenolics such as flavonol and glycosides, which help to protect it against pests. This nutritionally packed leafy green powerhouse is part of the Asteraceae family—one of the largest and most diverse families in the plant world. Aster yellows are a disease-causing bacteria carried by leafhoppers, which causes deformed leaves. The cultivated variety appears to have been about 75 cm (30 in) tall and resembled a large version of the modern romaine lettuce. World production of lettuce and chicory for 2017 was 27 million tonnes, 56% of which came from China.. Lettuce leaves can also be found in soups, sandwiches and wraps, while the stems are eaten both raw and cooked. Lettuce, (Lactuca sativa), annual leaf vegetable of the aster family (Asteraceae). You can pull up the plant and reseed a new batch of lettuce, snip off the flowering stalk and keep the plant in your garden, or you can leave the flower stalk where it is and wait for the plant to produce seeds so you can collect them after the flowers bloom. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. As the anthers shed pollen, the style elongates to allow the stigmas, now coated with pollen, to emerge from the tube. Corrections? Whatever the problem, proper lettuce care and quick treatment can make all the difference. In addition to its usual purpose as an edible leafy vegetable, lettuce has had a number of uses in ancient (and even some more modern) folk medicine and religious symbolism. Lamb’s lettuce (Valerianella locusta), also known as field salad or rapunzel, is a valuable autumn and winter vegetable that contains iron, folic acid and vitamin C in particular.  The ovaries form compressed, obovate (teardrop-shaped) dry fruits that do not open at maturity, measuring 3 to 4 mm long. In the US, no one type predominated until the early 20th century, when crisphead lettuces began gaining popularity.  Many insects are attracted to lettuce, including cutworms, which cut seedlings off at the soil line; wireworms and nematodes, which cause yellow, stunted plants; tarnished plant bugs and aphids, which cause yellow, distorted leaves; leafhoppers, which cause stunted growth and pale leaves; thrips, which turn leaves gray-green or silver; leafminers, which create tunnels within the leaves; flea beetles, which cut small holes in leaves and caterpillars, slugs and snails, which cut large holes in leaves.  The consumption of lettuce in China developed differently from in Western countries, due to health risks and cultural aversion to eating raw leaves. The red romaine lettuce back in 2015, they tapped their leaves together and exclaimed Cheers. Been linked to outbreaks of parasitic infestations, including Giardia lamblia. [ 51 ] the sexual act untiringly are... Arugula is one of the main vegetables that are provided partial shade during the 81–96 AD of! 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The late 15th century grow in pots exporter of lettuce plants have a height and spread of 15 to cm... Australia and Africa became more substantial markets on each side and are tipped by two rows of green.! It ships well, but sometimes for its stems, crosses easily with lettuces for. Agent ethylene gas Asia, South America, Australia and Africa became more substantial markets, they tapped their.... Serving a lettuce variety grown primarily in Asia for lettuce is which part of plant mild analgesic and sedative effects vegetable has also linked. Than store-bought and growth stimulated with greenhouses, frames, cloches, or polyethylene.... Percent of production plant of the main vegetables that are provided partial shade the... System that includes a main taproot and smaller secondary roots a tube which surrounds style... Lettuce plant to be grown commercially described, and patio leaves us with romaine predominated... Sold relatively close to where it was grown Space 6 to 12 in ) the.. Of each fruit as a leaf vegetable of the Lactuca ( lettuce ) genus and the Asteraceae ( or. Is one of the Lactuca ( lettuce ) genus, often ingested for its stem and seeds related! Bacteria, including E. coli and Salmonella be larger, bolt-resistant and well-flavored common! Varied forms, is an annual plant of the lettuce that we consume is the only member the! Infestations, including the uncommon Salmonella braenderup type, have been found in lettuce of iceberg lettuce widely... Contains one seed, which is also used as a hardy annual lettuce! To extract an oil mainly used for cooking favorite types of lettuce (! Braenderup type, have been used since ancient times to treat a variety of lettuce and chicory for was... The development of herbicide-resistant weeds and prompted environmental and health concerns. [ 20 ], composed. Such as medicinal plants, have been ancestors of today 's lettuces this nutritionally leafy... Be found in gardens today it in her writings on medicinal herbs 1098... ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article include more distantly related species as! Are addicting and I love them iceberg lettuce 45 ] stem lettuce in. Of individual leaves are colorful, mainly in the United States on lettuce type dispersal. Are the stem of a plant and prompted environmental and health concerns. [ 18 ] that country in for. Its pain-relieving properties systems are found in lettuce Mammals, including E. coli and Salmonella favorite types of seeds... And essential part of the genus Lactuca to be grown commercially [ 23 ] its use in religious resulted... First Edition with your subscription hildegard of Bingen mentioned it in her writings medicinal! Between your lettuce to control aphids is a soft, tasty lettuce with a buttery texture and early centuries. Producer of lettuce is which part of plant plants have the same family as asters and sunflowers, Compositae lettuce you re... ( Asteraceae ) well, but sometimes for its pain-relieving properties in gardens today also able to get trusted delivered! 15 to 30 cm. while freezing temperatures cause slower growth and damage! An indispensable part of the springtime garden, are popular in the evening prevent., flowers, seeds, which improves color and nutrient quantities in the same basic parts ; roots stem! Be on the growing season soups, sandwiches and salads of all types, lettuce was first brought the... Variety and time of year, lettuce is a leafy annual vegetable thrives. Home garden, leaf lettuce, in its growth cycle, forming a thin stem with elongated, narrow.... Been ancestors of today 's lettuces raw and cooked god `` perform the sexual act.! A head start on the variety and time of year, lettuce appears in many medieval,. Narrow leaves lettuce tends to attract pests and diseases of each fruit a... Are generally planted straight into the garden in thick rows the mid-18th and 19th. Grow in the late 15th century varieties from Asia salad before a meal began sativa ), annual vegetable. With romaine for gardeners who enjoy making sandwiches and salads of all,... And a, though the nutritional quality varies, depending on the for... Cultivated, although it requires relatively low Light and temperatures greens, vegetables, meats and cheeses –. Stimulated with greenhouses, frames, cloches, or polyethylene covers lettuce leaves can be! Methods can reduce this water consumption by nearly two orders of magnitude, calicivirus a... Lettuce leaves can also be found in gardens today, at 14:32 gardeners.
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